Glossary & Terminology

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Statistical method to evaluate the data from a designed experiment.

Apparent Resolution

The size of the smallest increment on the measuring device.

Bell-shaped Curve

Plotted curve or distribution showing a central peak and tapering off smoothly and symmetrically to “tails” on wither side. A normal curve is an example.

Bilateral Tolerance

A condition where both an upper and lower tolerance are specified. In contrast, a unilateral distribution is one-sided. See also Unilateral distribution.


(Count – Attribute data) The count or number of events of a given classification occurring in a sample. More than one event may occur in a unit (area of opportunity), and each such event throughout the sample is counted.


A collection of interrelated data items. Specifically, the contents and structure of a number of tables with columns as fields (part_id, feature_id, etc…) and rows that contain data (manifold, bore depth, etc). The MEASURLK.DB database houses all the information necessary for data collection and receives the data once collected.

Effective Resolution

The size of the data category when the total measurement system variation is considered.

Frequency Distribution

A set of all the various values that individual observations may have and the frequency of their occurrence in the sample or population.

Global Variable View

A Manager View that displays a Cpk bar graph of all characteristics in the current inspection run from worst case to best case.


A plot of a frequency distribution in the form of rectangles whose bases are equal to the cell interval and whose areas are proportional to the frequencies.


The process of measuring, examining, testing, gaging or otherwise comparing the unit with the applicable requirements.


Lower Control Limit. Control limit for points plotting below the center level.

Manager View

A snapshot window display that shows all characteristics of the current inspection run. Up to 16 snapshot windows can be viewed on the screen at once.


(Number of affected units) The total number of units (areas of opportunity) in a sample in which an event of a given classification occurs. A unit (area of opportunity) is to be counted only once even if several events of the same classification are encountered therein.


The process of determining the presence or absence of attributes or making measurements of a variable. A result of determining the presence or absence of attributes or making measurements of a variable.


Tendency of recurring at regular intervals.


The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy given needs.


Control chart of the range of variation among the individual elements of a sample


A group of units or observations taken from a larger collection of units or observations that serves to provide information that may be used as a basis for making a decision regarding the larger quantity.

Target Value X

Value within the specification limits which will be aimed for because it is decided that this is the best value for that quality characteristic; not necessarily either the nominal or the midpoint of the specifications.


(Count per unit) The average count, or average number of events of a given classification, per unit (unit area of opportunity) occurring within a sample. More than one event may occur in a unit, and each such event is recorded.


The property of exhibiting variation, i.e., in particular, changes or differences in the product of a process.

Warning Limits

Limits at which attention is called to the possibility of out-of-control conditions, but further action is not necessarily required.

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